Red and processed meat still pose cancer risk, warn global health experts

Top health organisations and global cancer experts are urging the public to continue following the recommendation to limit red meat intake to three portions a week and eat little, if any, processed meat for cancer prevention

30 September 2019

This statement comes after a consortium, known as NutriRECS, claimed that most people do not need to reduce or moderate how much red and processed meat they eat. However, top health organisations as well as global research experts in the field have looked at the analysis from NutriRECS and disagree with their interpretation of the scientific evidence.

The NutriRECS research results are not significantly different from what World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research’s 2018 report found, and indeed seem to verify WCRF/AICR’s findings. However, the NutriRECS researchers have made what is a confusing interpretation of the results which has led to this unnecessary recommendation to the public. By looking at the average amount of red and processed meat that people eat in the US and Europe, they have decided that there is no need to recommend for most people to reduce or moderate the amount they eat.

Furthermore, the NutriRECS recommendation does not separate out red and processed meat and this suggests that three or four portions of processed meat a week do not affect cancer risk significantly enough to warrant a reduction in the amount people eat; this conclusion from NutriRECS is not supported by the scientific evidence. The best available evidence supports an increased cancer risk.

Cancer experts agree that eating too much red meat and processed meat does increase our risk of bowel cancer, and that some people are already eating above the recommended amount.

Dr Giota Mitrou, Director of Research at WCRF, said: “The public could be put at risk if they interpret this new recommendation to mean they can continue eating as much red and processed meat as they like without increasing their risk of cancer. However, this is not the case. The message people need to hear is that we should be eating no more than three portions of red meat a week and eat little, if any, processed meat. We stand by our rigorous research of the last 30 years and urge the public to follow the current recommendations on red and processed meat.”

Dr Nigel Brockton, Vice President of Research at AICR, said: “We stand by the rigor of our research methodology and our Cancer Prevention Recommendation that people should limit red meat intake to less than 12–18oz per week and avoid processed meat. The underlying results reported by the NutriRECS group are actually consistent with this advice. However, their interpretation of the strength of these findings differs from the conclusions reached by the WCRF/AICR Continuous Update Project Expert Panel. Regularly eating processed meat, and higher consumption of red meat, increases your risk of colorectal cancer; suggesting that there is no need to limit these foods would put people at risk of colorectal cancer and further undermine public confidence in dietary advice.”

It’s important for people to remember that limiting how much red and processed meat we eat is only one part of lowering cancer risk. To most effectively reduce our overall risk, we should follow a healthy pattern of living. This includes not smoking, minimising alcohol intake, being a healthy weight, eating a healthy diet and staying physically active.

Signatories

Organisations

  • American Institute for Cancer Research
  • American Society for Preventive Oncology
  • Bowel Cancer Australia
  • Bowel Cancer UK
  • Cancer Council Australia
  • International Agency for Research on Cancer
  • NCD Alliance
  • Penny Brohn UK
  • Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine
  • Scottish Cancer Prevention Network
  • True Health Initiative
  • Union for International Cancer Control
  • Wereld Kanker Onderzoek Fonds
  • World Cancer Research Fund

Experts and researchers

  • Adriana Rusu, Lecturer, MD, PhD, Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases
  • Agnetha Rostgaard-Hansen, PhD Student
  • Alan A Jackson, Emeritus Professor of Human Nutrition, Southampton General Hospital
  • Alicja Wolk, Professor of Nutritional Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
  • Alina Vrieling, Assistant professor, Radboudumc, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
  • Amanda Cross, PhD, Professor in Cancer Epidemiology in the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics within the School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine of Imperial College
  • Ana Jovicevic, MD, Specialist in Epidemiology, Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia
  • Ana Rita Vieira, Research Assistant
  • Andrea Romanos Nanclares RDN, MS, PhD student; Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra
  • Anna Villarini, Senior Researcher, National Cancer Institute, Milano
  • Annaleen Koole, PhD student, Maastricht University
  • Annarita Vestri, Full Professor of Medical Statistics, Sapienza University of Rome
  • Anne Kirstine Eriksen, PostDoc at Danish Cancer Society Research Centre
  • Anne McTiernan, MD, PhD, Full Member and Professor, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Wa
  • Anne Tjønneland, Reaserch Leader, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre
  • Annie Anderson, Professor of Public Health Nutrition at the University of Dundee, Scotland
  • Arlette Gratas Delamarche, Full Professor, University Rennes2-France
  • Aurora Perez-Cornago, Senior Nutritional Epidemiologist, Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population
  • Ayse Demirkan, Research Fellow, University of Surrey
  • Barrie Margetts, Emeritus Professor within Medicine at the University of Southampton
  • Blanca Riquelme Gallego, PhD student Universidad de Granada
  • Candace Johnson, Postdoc
  • Carlos A Gonzalez Svatetz, MD, MPH, HPd, Unit Nutrition and Cancer, Catalan Institute of Oncology
  • Carlos Augusto Ferreira de Andrade, Researcher , Oswaldo Cruz Foundation
  • Carlos Fernández-Escobar, Medical Resident of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Carlos III Health Institute, Spain
  • Dr Caroline Wright, Senior Research Associate and Cancer Research UK Population Research Postdoctoral Fellow
  • Cecilie Kyrø, Postdoc, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre
  • Claire Hanika, Dietitian Macmillan Aftercare & Rehabilitation Team
  • Clare Collins, Professor of Nutrition and Dietetics at the University of Newcastle, Australia
  • Dr Claus Christophersen, Senior Research Fellow, Curtin University
  • Professor Colin Rees, Professor of Gastroenterology Newcastle University
  • Dagfinn Aune, Associate Professor, Bjørknes University College, Oslo, Norway
  • Daniel B. Ibsen, PhD Fellow, Research Unit for Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University
  • Deborah Navarro Rosenblatt, PhD Programme, University of Chile
  • Dimitrios Koutoukidis, Researcher, University of Oxford
  • Dirce Maria Lobo Marchioni, Associate Professor Departament of Nutrition School of Public Health
  • Domenico Palli, MD MPH, Head, Cancer Risk Factors and Life-style Epidemiology Unit, ISPRO Florence Italy
  • Doris Sau Man Chan, PhD, Research Fellow, Imperial College London
  • Edward Giovannucci, MD, ScD, Professor of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard University
  • Eileen Vincent, Assistant Director, Clinical Nutrition Research
  • Eilis Sutton, MSCA ESR, PhD Candidate
  • Elaine Leigh, Up and Active Champion, Ribble Valley Borough Council
  • Elio Riboli, Professor, MD, ScM MPH, Imperial College London, UK
  • Elisa V Bandera, MD, PhD, Professor and Chief, Cancer Epidemiology and Health Outcomes Co-Leader, Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey
  • Elisabet Rothenberg, Assistance Professor
  • Ellen Kampman, PhD, Professor and Chair Nutrition and Disease, Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, the Netherlands
  • Emily Sonestedt, Associate Professor in Nutritional Epidemiology, Lund University, Sweden
  • Erand Llanaj, Doctoral Researcher at Doctoral School of Health Sciences, University of Debrecen
  • Feisul Mustapha, Public Health Physician, Ministry of Health Malaysia
  • Fernando Rodríguez Artalejo, Professor of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
  • Franco Berrino, Epidemiologia, Association La Grande Via, Italy
  • Frank Hu, MD, PhD Chair, Department of Nutrition, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health
  • Franzel van Duijnhoven, Assistant professor, Wageningen University
  • Fred K Tabung, Assistant Professor, The Ohio State, University College of Medicine
  • Fumiaki Imamura, Senior Investigator Scientist, MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine
  • Gary A Giovino, SUNY Distinguished Professor of Community Health & Health Behavior, University at Buffalo
  • Gerda Pot, Researcher Nutrition and Health, Louis Bolk Institute
  • Giovanna Caderni, Professor, University of Florence
  • Professor Gustavo Cediel, ND MS PhD Food and Nutrition
  • Helen Coleman, Professor of Cancer Epidemiology, Queen’s University Belfast
  • Dr. Helga Bardos, Associate Professor
  • Inga Prokopenko, Professor in e-One Health, University of Surrey, UK
  • Isabel de Paula Antunes David, Associate Professor, Federal Fluminense University, Biomedical Institute, Brazil
  • Jakub Sobiecki, Doctoral Student, MRC Epidemiology
  • Jane Murphy, Professor of Nutrition, Bournemouth University
  • Jared Gichohi, Assistant Research Analyst, Prokopenko Group, University of Surrey
  • Jessica Kiefte-de Jong, Professor, Population Health
  • Jeffrey Blumberg, Professor of Nutrition Science and Policy
  • Jesus Vioque, MD, MPH, PhD, Professor in Public Health, University Miguel Hernandez
  • Jeroen WG Derksen, PhD student, University Medical Center Utrecht
  • Jill Scott, Registered Dietitian and Macmillan Development Lead for People Living with Cancer
  • Jytte Halkjær, Researcher, Danish Cancer Society
  • Professor Joe Millward, Emeritus Professor of Human Nutrition, University of Surrey
  • Joelie Mandzufas, Research Assistant, Telethon Kids Institute
  • John Kearney, Professor of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Technological University Dublin
  • John Mathers, Professor of Human Nutrition, Newcastle University
  • John D Potter, Professor, Centre for Public Health Research, Massey Unoversity, Wellington, New Zealand
  • Johnni Hansen, Epidemiologist, Danish Cancer Society
  • Joy Grimshaw, CEO, The YWCA Central Club
  • Juan Miranda-Rios, PI, National Autonomous University of Mexico
  • Julie Woods, Senior Lecturer Public Health Nutrition, Deakin University
  • Kana Wu, Principal Research Scientist, Department of Nutrition, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health
  • Karen Thomas, Health Improvement Specialist for Nutrition and Dietitian
  • Katia Balducci, Research Assistant, Imperial College London
  • Kostas Tsilidis, Assistant Professor at the Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Ioannina School of Medicine, Greece, and a Senior Lecturer at the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College School of Public Health
  • Knut-Inge Klepp, MPH, PhD, Professor and Executive Director, Division of Mental and Physical Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health
  • Laurie Davidson, Research Scientist, Program in Integrative Nutrition & Complex Diseases, Texas A&M University
  • Leah Fagan, Student at UNC Asheville
  • Leo Schouten, Associate Professor in Cancer Epidemiology
  • Lisa Jayne Gertson, Community and HIV Care Dietitian, Leicestershire Partnership NHS Trust
  • Liudmila Zudina, PhD Student
  • Liz Linington, Reflexologist, Health Clinic
  • Lorena Rodríguez Osiac, Medical Doctor, University of Chile
  • Louise Hansen, PhD, Research Coordinator, Danish Cancer Society
  • Madison Rousseau, Student of Health and Wellness
  • Maira Bes-Rastrollo, Professor of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
  • Marc Gunter, Section of Nutrition and Metabolism, International Agency for Research on Cancer
  • Marcus Cooke, Professor and Group Lead, Florida International University
  • Margarita Cariolou, Research Assistant, Imperial College London
  • Maria Celia Hughes, Research Officer, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute
  • Maria Giner-Soriano, PharmD, PhD, Fundació Institut Universitari per a la recerca a l'Atenció Primària de Salut, Jordi Gol i Gurina, Barcelona, Spain
  • Maria Soledad Hershey, PhD student Deptarment of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Universidad de Navarra
  • Mariana C Stern, Professor of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine of USC, University of Southern California
  • Marica Basson, Cancer Association of South Africa
  • Marika Kaakinen, Lecturer, University of Surrey
  • Marinka Steur, PhD, Career Development Fellow, MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, UK
  • Marina Reeves, Associate Professor (Nutrition), The University of Queensland
  • Mark Hull, Professor of Gastroenterology, University of Leeds
  • Martina Recalde, PhD Student, IDIAPJGol
  • Dr Mathilde Touvier, Research Director at Inserm, France, Head of the Nutritional Epidemiology Research Team
  • Matty Weijenberg, Professor of Molecular Epidemiology of Cancer
  • Mauro Bologna, Professor of General Pathology, University of L'Aquila, Italy
  • Meda R Sandu, PhD Student, University of Bristol
  • Meir Stampfer, Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition, Havard TH Chan School of Public Health
  • Dr Mélanie Deschasaux, Researcher in Nutritional Epidemiology, Inserm, France
  • Dr Melissa Wallace, Head of Research at Cancer Association of South Africa
  • Meropi Kontogianni, Assis. Professor, Dep Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece
  • Michael Leitzmann, Professor of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine
  • Michele Rubbini, Assistant Professor, Teacher of Culinary Medicine, University of Ferrara, Italy
  • Michelle Futrell, Consultant - Association of State Public Health Nutritionists
  • Michelle McMacken, MD
  • Miguel Ángel Royo Bordonada, Associate Dean for Academic Affairs, Spanish National School of Public Health
  • Mingyang Song, Assistant Professor, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health
  • Mireia Obón-Santacana, PhD, Oncology Data Analytics Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), Barcelona, Spain
  • Mirta Crovetto Mattassi, Diet and Consumption Patterns Researched, Universidad Playa Ancha, Valparaíso, Chile, Leutricionista, Rit
  • Neesha Nanu, Research Assistant, Imperial College London
  • Dr Nicole Kiss, Senior Research Fellow, Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition
  • Nita Forouhi, Programme Leader & Professor of Population Health & Nutrition, MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge
  • Paula Jakszyn, Senior Researcher, Catalan Institute of Oncology
  • Dr Paule Latino-Martel, Coordinator of the French Network on Nutrition and Cancer Research (NACRe Network)
  • Paolo Vineis, Professor of Environmental Epidemiology, Imperial College London
  • Pietro Ferrari, Scientist, Nutrition and Metabolism Section
  • Preethi Mistri, Senior Researcher Cancer Association of South Africa
  • Rafael Claro, Public Health Nutrition Professor at UFMG
  • Renata Freitas, Full Professor, School of Nutrition, Federal University of Ouro Preto, Brazil
  • Richard Martin, Professor of Clinical Epidemiology, University of Bristol
  • Robert S. Chapkin, Distinguished Professor
  • Ronit Endevelt, Director of the nutrition division in the public health services in the Ministry of Health Israel and prof' of nutrition and pub
  • Rosalia CM Simmen, PhD Professor, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
  • Dr Rosemary Stanton, Visiting Fellow, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Australia
  • Rune Blomhoff, PhD, Professor of Nutrition, University of Oslo
  • Sabine Rohrmann, Head, Cancer Registry of the Cantons Zurich and Zug
  • Sabrina Schlesinger, Senior Research Associate, German Diabetes Centre
  • Sandi Navarro, Research Scientist
  • Sandra Gessani, Senior Researcher Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy
  • Sarah Ellam, Macmillan Specialist Oncology Dietitian
  • Sarah Gerritsen, PhD, Research Fellow, School of Population Health, University of Auckland
  • Sarah Williams, Dietetic Assistant Practitioner BDA Member
  • Sasha Mikhael, Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Fellow at Medical College of Georgia
  • Serge Hercberg, Professor of Nutrition, University Paris 13
  • Shu Wen Ng, Associate Professor of Nutrition, Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
  • Steven K Clinton, MD, PhD, Professor of Internal Medicine, Department of Medical Oncology, The Ohio State University
  • Dr Suzanne Zaremba, Lecturer in Nutrition, University of Dundee
  • Talita Duarte Salles, PhD, Fundació Institut Universitari per a la recerca a l'Atenció Primària de Salut, Jordi Gol i Gurina, Barcelona, Spain
  • Teresa Norat, Principal Research Fellow, Imperial College London
  • Thomas P LaFontaine, PhD, Clinical Exercise Physiologist
  • Valeria Pala, Senior Researcher
  • Dr Vanita Shrikant Bhat, ICMR Research Associate
  • Vivien Lund, PhD
  • Volker Mai, Associate Professor
  • Walter C Willett, Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA
  • Walter Felix Jungi, Dr-med., former chairman of SKAK (Swiss Cancer Ligue)
  • Yvonne Wettergren, Associate Prof of Molecular Medicine, Inst. of Clinical Sciences, Univ. of Gothenburg, Sweden

Health professionals and stakeholders

  • Alan N Desmond, Consultant Gastroenterologist, Devon Gut Clinic & NHS
  • Alex Laird, Medical Herbalist, Breast Cancer Haven UK
  • Amine Khoufaify, Assistant pharmacy Manager/Oncology Pharmacist
  • Anatole Karpovs, Medical Doctor
  • Angela Copeland, Bowel Cancer Screening Specialist Screening Practitioner
  • Anna Parton, Dietitian
  • Anne Goodman, Registered Dietitian Nutritionist
  • Anne-Sofie Qvistgaard Lund, MSc in Human Nutrition, Danish Cancer Society
  • Antonio Luis Lemos Castelo, Medical Doctor
  • Dr Anna Moore, Nutritional Physician
  • Dr Aryan Tavakkoli, Physician, UK
  • Asfaw Ayalew Desta, Nutritionist
  • Barbara Freedland, Dietitian
  • Bill Jeffery, Executive Director, Centre for Health, Science and Law and Editor, and Editor, Food for Life Report
  • Brían de Búrca, Retired Priest
  • Bryony Redfern, Specialty Doctor, Solent NHS Trust
  • Carnes Rojas, Generadoras de Células Cancerígenas
  • Caroline McManus, Health Care
  • Charlotte Jernigan, Instructor "Radical Remission" Curriculum of Dr Kelly Turner, PhD
  • Chery Vickery, Deputy Head of Dietetics, BCUHB, BDA
  • Chrissie Lane, Consultant Nurse
  • Christine Clinton, Cancer Care Educator
  • Cindy Magyar, School Nurse
  • Claire Brett-Pitt, Yoga Teacher & Volunteer for Macmillan
  • Claire Donald, Specialist Dietitian
  • Clare Rogers, Macmillan Oncology Dietitian
  • Claudia Heinemann, Macmillan Oncology Dietitian
  • Cora Kurtz, Retired Nutritionist/Dietitan
  • Danielle Holtz, Undergraduate public health student, UNC Asheville
  • David Hammock, SSI
  • David L Katz, President, True Health Initiative
  • David Williams, Technical Translator
  • Debbie Gribben, Director – Finding Me Living Well
  • Diarmuid Duggan, Senior Dietitian
  • Elisa Sanchez Martinez, Nutritionist
  • Emma Dasco, Student, UNC Asheville
  • Emma Smith, Diabetes Specialist Dietitian
  • Evelyn Umukoro, Specialist Dietitian – Renal Nutrition
  • Fesaha Tsegaye Tegene, Director, Health Department, ECD. Seventh-day Adventist Church
  • Frida Carlstedt, Registered Dietitian, Närhälsan dietistenhet Eliecer
  • Dr. Gerard van den Aardweg, Radiobiologist/ Radiation Safety Officer
  • Gina Fourie, Dietitian
  • Ginevra Papi Communication Assistant, Association of European Cancer Leagues
  • GP Koirala, Employees of Government-owned Cement Industries and Social Volunteers Engaged in Cancer Relief Society, Nepal
  • Heather Nathens, Dietitian, Radiation Onco
  • Helen Marchant, Nutritionist
  • Hilda Singh, Retired General Nurse and Public Health Champion
  • Ilir Hoxha, Managing Director, LifestylediagnostiX
  • Iona Johnston, Oncology Dietitian, BDA
  • Irene McCann, Occupational Health Nurse
  • Jennifer Bowden, Registered Nutritionist
  • Jennifer Van Zant, Senior Dietitian, Isle of Wight NHS
  • Joanne Fordham, Health Connector
  • Joanne Pain, Cancer Specialist Dietitian
  • John Robbins, President, Food Revolution Network
  • Josee de la Chevrotiere, Nutrionniste Oncolgie
  • Josh Cullimore, GP, NHS
  • Judith Gisser, Certified Nutrition Specialist CNS
  • Julia Hayes, Nutritionist, ANutr
  • Katarzyna Uścińska, Dietitian, Cancer Hospital
  • Kelay Trentham, MS, RDN, CSO, FAND, Oncology Dietitian, MultiCare Regional Cancer Center
  • Kelsey Brown, Clinical Dietitian
  • Kristen Saccone, Dietitian
  • Kym Lang, Nutritionist
  • Laura Ashurst, self-employed Wellbeing Practitioner
  • Laura Lehrer, Holistic Health Coach
  • Laura Macleod, Healthy Weight Practitioner
  • Lorinda van Dyk, CANSA Seal of Recognition Coordinator, MSc Biochemsitry
  • Lorraine Coleman, Senior Dietitian
  • Marco Bellacci, Social worker
  • Madeline Bennett, Institutional Outreach Manager at Balanced.org
  • Maria R Pedro, Nutritionist-Dietitian, Philippines
  • Marijke Sauter, Medical Doctor
  • Marcia Campbell, Dietitian
  • Melissa Moore-Boyle, MS, RDN, LDN, CDE, Clinical Dietitian
  • Merri Iddrisu, Lecturer, Universty of Ghana
  • Michelle Harvie, Research Dietitian
  • Natasha Jones, Advanced Specialist Dietitian – Haemato-oncology
  • Neeraj Lakhanpal, Staff GP/Anaesthetist, Milton District Hospital
  • Oliver Elshof, Pharmacist
  • Pat Fogarty MS, RDN, LDN, Outpatient Wellness Dietitian, Levine Cancer Institute
  • Paul Galea, Public Health, Plant-based Health Professionals UK
  • Rachael Hutson, CEO of WCRF UK
  • Rebecca Scott, Macmillan Dietitian
  • Rebecca Tobi, Nutritionist ANutr
  • Richelle Flanagan, Dietitian Be Nutrition Wise Member Irish Nutrition & Dietetic Institute
  • Robert B Doll, Jr, Consulting Physician, Lehigh Valley Physicians Group
  • Sally Goddard, Personal Trainer
  • Samantha Grimes, Principal Oncology Dietitian – NHS
  • Sara Bennett, Dietitian
  • Seema Khajuria, Nutritionist Diet & Health Advisory Services
  • Simon Bott, Consultant Surgeon
  • Siobhan Rigney, Dietitian NHS
  • Sofia Lourenço, Specialist Consultant, Danish Cancer
  • Stavroula Droufakou, Medical Oncologist
  • Susan R McCray, RD Registered Dietitian
  • Terri Phillips Arnold, Principal, The Phillips Agency
  • Thomas Gremillion, Director of Food Policy, Consumer Federation of America
  • Tracy Balko, Health Development Officer, Ribble Valley Borough Council
  • Vida Lartey, Nurse
  • William Williams, Dietitian, NHS
  • Zahra Kassam, Radiation Oncologist, Canada

Ends

For more information and media enquiries contact Melanie Purnode, Senior Press Manager at WCRF, on 020 7343 4280 / 07879 483 022 or m.purnode@wcrf.org or pr@wcrf.org.

Notes to editors 

About World Cancer Research Fund

World Cancer Research Fund is part of a network of cancer charities with a global reach, dedicated to the prevention of cancer and survival through a healthy diet, maintaining a healthy weight, and being more physically active. We cut through the jargon to turn the latest global research on cancer prevention and survival into practical, straightforward advice and information, helping anyone who wants to reduce their risk of developing cancer to make fully informed lifestyle choices.

Find out more: www.wcrf.org