Adherence to our Recommendations is associated with lower cancer incidence and mortality, and impacts survivorship.
Our Cancer Prevention Recommendations are intended to reduce the incidence of cancer by helping people to maintain a healthy weight and adopt healthy patterns of eating, drinking and physical activity throughout life, and by informing policy action to create health-enabling environments. The Recommendations are designed to be used by individuals, families, health professionals, communities and policymakers.
Since 2007, independent external researchers have investigated the impact of adhering to our Recommendations on cancer incidence or mortality. More recently, the Recommendations have also been studied within cancer survivors too.
To date, we have identified 21 articles in peer review journals using prospective cohort studies that investigated the impact of adherence to our Recommendations. Of these, 17 articles investigated adherence and cancer incidence and mortality, while 4 investigated outcomes in cancer survivors.
In general, these journal articles show that following a dietary pattern and overall lifestyle close to the 2007 WCRF Cancer Prevention Recommendations reduces the risk of new cancer cases, dying from cancer and dying from all causes, as well as improving quality of life in cancer survivors.
All of the studies listed below examine adherence to the 2007 Cancer Prevention Recommendations from the Second Expert Report. Following the publication of the Third Expert Report in May 2018, we funded two projects through our grant programme, led by Dr Leo Schouten and Dr Martijn Bours, which are investigating the impact of adherence to the updated 2018 Cancer Prevention Recommendations.
The 2018 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) Score and All-Cause, Cancer, and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Risk: A Longitudinal Analysis in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Shams-White M, Brockton N, Mitrou P, Kahle L, Reedy J. Current Developments in Nutrition. 2022 June; Abstract
Cancer-Specific and General Nutritional Scores and Cancer Risk: Results from the Prospective NutriNet-Santé Cohort. Lavallette C, Adjibade M, Srour B et al. Cancer Research. 2018 Aug; 78(15): 4427-35. Abstract
Does adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research cancer prevention guidelines reduce risk of colorectal cancer in the UK Women’s Cohort Study? Jones P, Cade JE, Evans CEL, Hancock N, Greenwood DC. Br J Nutr. 2018 Feb; 119(3): 340-348. Abstract
Adherence to the WCRF/AICR Dietary Recommendations for Cancer Prevention and Risk of Cancer in Elderly from Europe and the United States: A Meta-Analysis within the CHANCES Project. Jankovic N, Geelen A, Winkels RM et al. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2017 Jan; 26(1): 136-144. Abstract
Adherence to Diet and Physical Activity Cancer Prevention Guidelines and Cancer Outcomes: A Systematic Review. Kohler LN, Garcia DO, Harris RB, Oren E, Roe DJ, Jacobs ET. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016 Jul; 25(7): 1018-28. Abstract
Association between meeting the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations and colorectal cancer incidence: results from the VITAL cohort. Hastert T, White E. Cancer Causes Control. 2016 Nov 27(11): 1347-1359. Abstract
Adherence to diet, physical activity and body weight recommendations and breast cancer incidence in the Black Women’s Health Study. Nomura SJ, Dash C, Rosenberg J, Yu J, Palmer JR, Adams-Campbell LL. Int J Cancer. 2016 Dec; 139(12): 2738-2752. Abstract
Adherence to the cancer prevention recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research and mortality: a census-linked cohort. Lohse T, Faeh D, Bopp M, Rohrmann S, Swiss National Cohort Study Group. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Sep; 104(3):678-85. Abstract
Is adherence to diet, physical activity, and body weight cancer prevention recommendations associated with colorectal cancer incidence in African American women? Nomura SJ, Dash C, Rosenberg L, Yu J, Palmer JR, Adams Campbell LL. Cancer Causes Control. 2016 Jul; 27(7): 869-79. Abstract
Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations and breast cancer risk. Harris HR, Berhkvist L, Wolk A. Int J Cancer. 2016 Jun;138 (11): 2657-64. Abstract
WCRF/AICR recommendation adherence and breast cancer incidence among postmenopausal women with and without non-modifiable risk factors. Nomura SJ, Inoue-Choi M, Lazovich D, Robien K. Int J Cancer. 2016 Jun; 138 (11): 2602-15. Abstract
Concordance with World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guidelines for cancer prevention and obesity-related cancer risk in the Framingham Offspring cohort (1991–2008). Makarem N, Lin Y, Bandera EV, Jacques PF, Parekh N. Cancer Causes Control. 2015 Feb; 26(2): 277-86. Abstract
Adherence to cancer prevention guidelines and cancer incidence, cancer mortality, and total mortality: a prospective cohort study. Kabat GC, Matthews CE, Kamensky V, Hollenbeck AR, Rohan TE. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Mar; 101(3): 558-569. Abstract
Adherence to cancer prevention guidelines and risk of breast cancer. Catsburg C, Miller AB, Rohan TE. Int J Cancer. 2014 Nov; 135(10): 2444-52. Abstract
Adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations and cancer-specific mortality: results from the Vitamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) Study. Hastert TA, Beresford SA, Sheppard L, White E. Cancer Causes Control. 2014 May; 25(5): 541-52. Abstract
Adherence to WCRF/AICR Cancer Prevention Recommendations and Risk of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer. Hastert TA, Beresford SA, Patterson RE, Kristal AR, White E. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013 Sep; 22(9): 1498-508. Abstract
Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines and risk of death in Europe: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer cohort study. Vergnaud AC, Romaguera D, Peeters PH et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 May; 97(5): 1107-20. Abstract
Is concordance with World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines for cancer prevention related to subsequent risk of cancer? Results from the EPIC study. Romaguera D, Vergnaud AC, Peeters PH et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jul; 96(1): 150-63. Abstract
Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research Guideline Is Associated With Better Health-Related Quality of Life Among Chinese Patients With Breast Cancer. Lei YY, Ho SC, Cheng A, Kwok C, Lee CI, Cheung KL, Lee R, Loong HHF, He YQ, Yeo W. J Nati Compr Canc Netw. 2018 Mar; 16(3): 275-285. Abstract
Pre-diagnostic concordance with the WCRF/AICR guidelines and survival in European colorectal cancer patients: a cohort study. Romageura D, Ward H, Wark P et al. BMC Medicine. 2015; 13: 107. Abstract
Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research Recommendations for Cancer Prevention Is Associated With Better Health-Related Quality of Life Among Elderly Female Cancer Survivors. Inoue-Choi M, Lazovich D, Prizment AE, Robien K. J Clin Oncol. 2013 May; 31(14): 1758-66. Abstract
Adherence to the WCRF/AICR Guidelines for Cancer Prevention Is Associated with Lower Cause Mortality among Older Female Cancer Survivors. Inoue-Choi M, Robien K, Lazovich D. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013 May; 22(5): 792-802. Abstract